The American Cockroach is actually not native to the United States. Instead it originates from Africa. It was transplanted to and established in North America after hundreds of years of trans-oceanic shipping. The cockroaches would stow away with cargo and passengers and were introduced to the continent as well as Antarctica and Greenland.
Their original habitat was warm and humid, but they have adapted to colder climates by remaining in warmer places such as buildings, warehouses and homes. They have also been able to reside in colder, but sheltered areas such as underground subways and sewers.
The American Cockroach appears glossy and carries a reddish-brown look throughout its body. Even the wings are the same color and darker brown marks can be seen at the center of the pronotum ('shoulders'). The female has a shorter pair of wings wings while the male's wings extend past his abdomen. This makes them appear longer. They are very good flyers, though most humans see them running on floors, walls and ceilings more often than flying.
Adults eat moist foods. This can be human food, pet food or other edible organic matter. Because they eat the same foods as humans and pets, they are considered a huge commercial and personal pest.
Females lay about a dozen eggs at a time and then carry them on their backs for a few days, unloading them in a dark area where the eggs can hatch undisturbed. Nymphs (juveniles) look like smaller versions of adults and can take up to a year to grow to full size. Female life spans are at least a year long.
Most cockroaches flee for cover when suddenly illuminated, however, they will crawl and explore areas and rooms with lights on.
Cockroach infestations are a common problem in homes, apartments and food warehouses. Professional exterminators are very helpful in eradicating them from the premises.
Common name: American Cockroach
Scientific Name: Periplaneta americana
Other Names: Cockroach, Waterbug, Roach, Palmetto Bug
Adult Size (Length): 27mm to 40mm (1.06in to 1.57in) COMPARE
Identifying Colors: brown; red; yellow
General Description: fat, wide, fast, flying
North American Reach (Though Not Limited To*): Alabama; Alaska; Arizona; Arkansas; California; Colorado; Connecticut; Delaware; Florida; Georgia; Hawaii; Idaho; Illinois; Indiana; Iowa; Kansas; Kentucky; Louisiana; Maine; Maryland; Massachusetts; Michigan; Minnesota; Mississippi; Missouri; Montana; Nebraska; Nevada; New Hampshire; New Jersey; New Mexico; New York; North Carolina; North Dakota; Ohio; Oklahoma; Oregon; Pennsylvania; Rhode Island; South Carolina; South Dakota; Tennessee; Texas; Utah; Vermont; Virginia; Washington; West Virginia; Wisconsin; Wyoming; Mexico; Alberta; British Columbia; Manitoba; New Brunswick; Newfoundland and Labrador; Nova Scotia; Ontario; Prince Edward Island; Quebec; Saskatchewan
* Keep in mind that insect reach is not governed by lines on a map and therefore may appear in areas/regions/states beyond those listed above.